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Isaac Newton

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The English mathematician, physicist, astronomer, alchemist, theologian, and author Sir Isaac Newton PRS was born on December 25, 1642, and died on March 20, 1726/27. During his lifetime, he was referred to as a “natural philosopher.” He was a pivotal figure in the Enlightenment, a philosophical revolution. Classical mechanics was first established by his book Philosophi Naturalis Principia Mathematica, which was first published in 1687. Along with German mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Newton is credited with developing infinitesimal calculus. He also made significant contributions to optics.

Newton’s universal gravitation and laws of motion were formulated in the Principia, which served as the dominant scientific viewpoint for centuries before being superseded by the theory of relativity. Kepler’s laws of planetary motion, which account for tides, the trajectories of comets, the precession of the equinoxes, and other phenomena, were derived from Newton’s mathematical description of gravity. This eliminated any doubt about the heliocentricity of the Solar System. He demonstrated that the same principles could be used to explain the motion of Earthly objects and celestial bodies. The geodetic measurements of Maupertuis, La Condamine, and others later confirmed Newton’s inference that the Earth is an oblate spheroid, convincing most European scientists that Newtonian mechanics is superior to earlier systems.

Isaac Newton

Based on his observation that a prism divides white light into the colors of the visible spectrum, Newton constructed the first practical reflecting telescope and developed a sophisticated theory of color. His highly influential book Opticks, which was published in 1704, collected his research on light. In addition, he introduced the concept of a Newtonian fluid, the first theoretical calculation of the speed of sound, and an empirical law of cooling. Newton contributed to the study of power series, generalized the binomial theorem to non-integer exponents, developed a method for approximating the roots of a function, and classified the majority of the cubic plane curves as mathematicians in addition to his work on calculus.

Newton was the second Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge and a fellow of Trinity College. He was a devout Christian, but he didn’t follow the usual teachings, and he secretly denied the Trinity theory. In contrast to the majority of the Cambridge faculty at the time, he refused to accept holy orders from the Church of England. Newton spent a lot of time studying alchemy and biblical chronology in addition to the mathematical sciences. However, most of his work in those fields was not published until a long time after his death. Newton served two brief terms as a Member of Parliament for the University of Cambridge, in 1689–1690 and 1701–1702. He was personally and politically associated with the Whig party. He was knighted by Queen Anne in 1705 and spent the last three decades of his life in London, serving as president of the Royal Society and Warden (1696–1699) and Master (1699–1727) of the Royal Mint.


Early life

Isaac Newton was born on Christmas Day, 25 December 1642 (NS 4 January 1643[a]), “an hour or two after midnight”[17] at Woolsthorpe Manor in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth, a hamlet in the county of Lincolnshire, according to the Julian calendar that was in use in England at the time. Three months earlier, his father, also known as Isaac Newton, had passed away. Newton was a young child who was prematurely born; When Newton was three years old, his mother, Hannah Ayscough, reportedly stated that he could have fit inside a quart mug.[18] She later remarried and moved in with her new husband, the Reverend Barnabas Smith. She left her son in the care of his maternal grandmother, Margery Ayscough (nee Blythe). According to this entry in a list of sins committed up to the age of 19, Newton did not like his stepfather and maintained some animosity toward his mother for marrying him. threatening to burn them and the house over my mother and father Smith. Newton’s mother had three children from her second marriage: Mary, Benjamin, and Hannah.

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